Various Options of Weight Loss

What is weight loss?

Weight loss is a decrease in body weight either by following a diet and exercise or because of involuntarily circumstances such as illness. Body weight is determined by the amount of energy that is consumed as food and the amount of energy expended during daily activities.

How to lose weight naturally?

Eating fewer processed foods and more of green leafy vegetables, fruits, home cooked food along with probiotics by following portion control, mindful eating are just a few of the natural methods that can help to not add on extra kilograms. Establishing a healthy lifestyle by following daily exercise routine along with a proper sleep cycle is equally important

The following points are to be followed religiously

  • Drinking sufficient water at least 2-3 litres per day helps in flushing out toxins from the body.
  • Limit intake of refined carbs like white flour, white bread, white rice, sodas, pastries, snacks, sweets and added sugar as their refining process leaves nothing but easy-to-digest carbs, which can increase the risk of overeating.
  • Add Sufficient protein to your diet by consuming 0.8g-1g of protein per kg of your body weight. Since protein is known as “King of Nutrients”, which helps in boosting metabolism.
  • Limit the intake of processed foods, they usually contain high amount of added sugars, fats & calories.
  • Limit intake of added sugar as all the leading diseases of the world are linked to consumption of excess sugar.
  • Eat sufficient fruits and veggies as they are high in water, nutrients, and fibre.
  • Practice mindful eating and portion control
  • Don’t be a couch potato, focus on achieving at least 10,000 steps a day.
  • Follow an exercise routine
  • Eat fibre rich foods as fibre may delay stomach emptying, make the stomach expand and promote the release of satiety hormones This can help you eat less without having to think about it.
  • Include Probiotic food in your diet as They can improve digestive health and heart health, and may even help with weight loss
  • Chew and eat your food slowly

Weight Loss Through Diets

Popular forms of Diets are-

Intermittent fasting

In this diet, one has to eat at a specific time. If a person is fasting for a particular time or eating just one meal every day, then the body will start burning fats

How to Follow Intermittent Fasting?

In this diet, one has to eat at a specific time. If a person is fasting for a particular time or eating just one meal every day, then the body will start burning fats.

  • Proper consultation of a nutritionist is required before a person is willing to start an intermittent fasting.
  • 16/8 fasting: In this way of fasting, one has to restrict daily eating to eight hours and the rest of the 16 hours a person does eat. This is the most preferred form of intermittent fasting,
  • Eat-stop-eat: It involves fasting for 24 hours, once or twice a week.
  • 5/2 diet: In this method, a person has to consume only 500-600 calories on any two days of the week and the days should be not consecutive, the rest of the days one can eat normally.
  • Fasting for long is dangerous, it might encourage the body to store more fats in the face of starvation that can lead to ketosis.
  • The body takes two to four weeks to adapt to intermittent fasting.
  • Water and calorie-free beverages can be consumed throughout the fasting period
  • Eating must be regulated. One should not to eat high calorie foods and also avoid fried items.
  • Intermittent fasting allows experimentation with food, and people can take pleasure in eating nutritious food.
  • Since the metabolism is affected positively by intermittent fasting, the overall body and brain also get affected, fat burns and increases the longevity of the body.
  • Intermittent fasting also helps in protecting the body from many chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart problems, inflammatory bowel syndrome and different types of cancer.

Pros

  • It improves blood pressure and the overall heart rate,
  • Intermittent fasting is also helpful in losing weight in obese adults.
  • It reduces insulin levels and increases the growth of hormone levels and improves norepinephrine, the release of a fat-burning hormone.
  • Fasting for a short period of time can increase the metabolic rate by a margin of 4 to 14% because of hormonal changes.
  • Some studies have found 3-8% weight loss over 3-24 weeks during intermittent fasting

Cons:

  • Intermittent fasting has some safety concerns as it is not suitable for everyone.
  • It causes tissue loss
  • Children below the age of 18 and the women who are breastfeeding are not advised to follow the intermittent fasting.
  • People with diabetes, blood sugar problems and eating disorders also shouldn’t follow intermittent fasting.
  • This fasting can have a bad impact on the digestive system, including constipation, nausea, diarrhoea and bloating.
  • Dehydration is another common side effect that can worsen constipation.
  • Body excrete water and salt through urine in large amounts at the beginning of the fasting called natural diuresis of fasting, it should be replaced by proper electrolytes
  • As a beginner in intermittent fasting, one should consume plenty of water or fluids.
  • Some studies have shown fatigue and lower energy levels to people who practice intermittent fasting. There is also a chance of lower blood sugar levels, leading to tiredness by following this diet.
  • Fasting leads to burning fats for energy and when the fats are broken down it releases acetone and other ketone bodies, the acetone can lead to bad breath.
  • Also, excess ketone bodies in the body can lead to keto-flu.

Only fasting cannot help in weight loss, proper exercise should be done in conjunction with intermittent fasting

Vegan Diet

This diet does not include food items that are sourced from animals. such as milk, eggs, cheese, honey etc. People on vegan diet can consume only plant- based foods. This is helpful in many ways, it considerably lowers the risk of atherosclerosis, clogging of arteries due to fat deposits.

Pros:

    • People, who do not eat meat, have less chances of gaining weight and becoming obese.
    • Vegan diet also reduces the chances of type 2 diabetes, and certain kinds of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, breasts, ovaries and uterus.
    • This diet helps to keep in check the number of calories that a person consumes on a daily basis and required calorie intake is not compromised at the expense of important nutrients.
    • Vegans have a lower body mass index than people on animal-based diets

Cons:

  • Shifting to a vegan diet and cutting down animal products involves some risks, it might result in deficiency in several minerals, protein, calcium, omega- 6 fatty acid, zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D.
  • Protein is very crucial for a lot of important metabolic reactions, they are building blocks of the body and the protein content for plant-based foods is less than animal products.
  • Fortified foods are good substitutes for calcium foods, almonds, broccoli, tofu, and soy milk are all excellent calcium sources. Flaxseeds, vegetable oils, and other plant-based supplements can be consumed for omega-3 fatty acids.
  • vitamin B12 nutrient can be found only in animal food products. The body requires it for making red blood cells and DNA. A vegan person may need a vitamin supplement to make up for the nutrient needs

Keto Diet

Ketogenic diet is low on carbs and high in fat diet with many health benefits like weight loss, controlled diabetes and decreased risk of developing some kinds of cancer. In this diet the consumption of carbohydrates are reduced and replaced with fats that leads to a metabolic condition called ketosis.

Under ketosis, converting fat into energy is easy for the body. These fats get broken down and produce ketone bodies in the liver and become energy sources

as opposed to glucose. The percentage of fat, protein, and carbohydrates are roughly 70%, 20%, and 10%, respectively in this diet.

Pros:

  • Ketogenic diet is more effective for long term weight loss, as people lose 1 kg more weight than those who follow a low-fat diet.
  • Diastolic blood pressure and the number of triglycerides in the body can also be reduced by following a ketogenic diet.
  • High level of ketones, lower blood sugar and improved insulin sensitivity also helps in maintaining proper weight.
  • Studies have shown women with type 2 diabetes, experienced positive results and haemoglobin A1C levels were significantly lowered by following a ketogenic diet.
  • Body fats and blood pressure are maintained properly, and also regulates the levels of good cholesterol in the body.

Cons:

  • Many people may get sick at first while following the ketogenic diet as it is not beneficial all the time
  • Sometimes they might get affected by gastrointestinal problems, fatigue and nausea. This is called keto-flu which generally passes after a few days or a week.
  • Diarrhoea is another common problem related to keto flu that is the caused due to lack of fibre contents in keto diet
  • It can be dangerous for the vital organs like the liver, kidneys, and brain, if the pH value of the blood gets disrupted. This happens when the body ends up storing excess ketone, which in turn makes the blood acidic.
  • Keto diet can lead to muscle loss.

Further, there are many other diets like Gluten Free, Paleo Diet, DASH Diet and so on which are prescribed based on the patient’s health conditions

Weight loss through Surgeries:

When it’s practically not possible to achieve & maintain the desired weight as per BMI naturally or through various forms of diet, there comes the surgical options to the rescue

What is BMI?

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can indicate high body fatness.

BMI is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meter

A normal BMI ranges between 18.5-22.9, BMI of 23.0 – 24.9 is considered to be overweight and BMI ≥25 as obesity

What are the Three Different Types of Weight Loss Surgeries?

Bariatric Surgery:

This is a medical term for surgical procedures used to manage obesity and obesity-related conditions. This treats obesity by altering the structure of your digestive tract. These changes help limit the amount of food you can comfortably eat. They can also influence hunger hormones and appetite.

Bariatric surgery can be a good option for people with obesity who’ve struggled to lose weight with diet and exercise alone, including people who repeatedly regain the weight they do lose. Bariatric surgery can also a good option for people experiencing obesity-related health conditions, such as type 2 diabetes. This Surgery is performed on Patients whose BMI is above 40.

What are the types of bariatric surgery?

The most common types of bariatric surgery include:

    • Gastric bypass

    • Sleeve gastrectomy

    • Gastric band surgery

Duodenal switch surgery is less common but may also be recommended.

Gastric bypass:

Also known as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYBG), this surgery is designed to decrease the size of your stomach. In response, your body may absorb fewer calories and nutrients, such as carbohydrates. This can lead to hormonal changes that may influence your hunger signals.

Gastric bypass may result in the most significant weight loss when compared to other bariatric surgeries. But it’s also the most complex of all the types of bariatric procedures.

It has three separate steps:

    • stapling of the stomach
    • dividing up the small intestine
    • relocating the upper small intestine

Sleeve gastrectomy

This is the most common type of bariatric surgery. It’s used to decrease the size of your stomach and reduce the amount of food you can eat at one time. This may also reduce the production of intestinal hormones that influence hunger and metabolism. One of these hormones is called GLP1. This hormone can reduce hunger signals and better regulate blood glucose (sugar) levels.

The results of this surgery are permanent because a portion of your stomach is removed during surgery.

Gastric band

Adjustable gastric band (AGB), or simply gastric band, surgery involves the surgical placement of a band around the top part of your stomach. This creates a pouch at the top of your stomach that holds a smaller amount of food, decreasing your overall calories and nutrient intake.

The adjustable part of this surgery means that your doctor can change the size of the opening of the band in order to create a smaller or larger pouch.

Your body may not be able to tolerate the band’s presence, leading to inflammation or other complications in the area where the band is placed. In these cases, a doctor will need to remove the gastric band. This is why gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy are often preferred over a gastric band,

Duodenal switch

A duodenal switch is the least common type of bariatric surgery. Also known as a biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, this procedure involves two separate surgeries:

  1. A surgeon will perform traditional gastric sleeve surgery.
  2. The surgeon will divide the small intestine into two parts.

The goal of a duodenal switch is to reduce calorie intake and lead to more rapid weight loss. But this type of bariatric surgery also involves the most risks.

One risk is a deficiency in protein or other vitamins and nutrients which can be controlled with proper supplementation. This is due to the body’s reduced ability to absorb them after the surgery

AspireAssist Device

The AspireAssist may be an option for people with a BMI between 35 and 55 who have not achieved sufficient weight loss through nonsurgical treatments. Your doctor will use an endoscope, inserted through a small incision in your abdomen, to place a small tube in your stomach. The tube is attached to a disk- shaped port valve that is placed flush against your skin on the outside of your stomach. About 20 to 30 minutes after every meal, a device is attached to the port and used to drain the contents of your stomach. This removes about 30% of calories consumed. The device can be removed at any time.

Expected Weight Loss

In clinical trials, people who used the device lost about 25% of their excess body weight after one year of using the device.

Requires Frequent Monitoring

Regular medical visits are required to ensure the disk remains flush against your skin and to shorten the tube as you lose weight. We also provide regular counseling on healthy lifestyle habits.

Possible Side Effects and Complications

The AspireAssist may cause indigestion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. Risks associated with the placement of the tube and port include abdominal pain, inflammation around the area where the tube is placed, and the possibility that the device might migrate into the stomach wall.

People with uncontrolled hypertension, eating disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and stomach ulcers are not candidates for this procedure.

Endoscopic sleeve Gastroplasty

This is an alternative to gastric sleeve surgery, in which the surgeon places sutures along the inside of your stomach to decrease the size of your stomach. A similar procedure, called gastric plication, also involves a similar

approach in which your stomach is folded in on itself and stitched together to decrease your stomach size.

Both procedures can be performed endoscopically and don’t involve any actual cutting of your stomach like in traditional bariatric procedures.

Non-Surgical weight loss options:

Allurion Gastric Balloon

This is the First and only gastric balloon in the world that does not require surgery or endoscopy for placement or removal.

This is done on people whose BMI is above 35

How does the Allurion Gastric Balloon help you lose weight?

  • The Allurion Balloon takes up space in the stomach, helping you control your appetite.
  • It Helps us feel satisfied with smaller portion sizes there by reducing hunger and snack cravings
  • Weight loss is expected to be 10-15% of the total weight

How is the Allurion Gastric Balloon placed?

The Allurion Balloon is placed by a certified Healthcare Professional in only 15 minutes.

Steps Involved in the Procedure:

  1. The patient is made to swallow a capsule containing deflated balloon attached to a thin tube.
  2. X-Ray is done to ensure the capsule is placed correctly in the stomach
  3. The doctor uses catheter to fill the balloon with 550 ml of water
  4. A second x-ray is done to ensure the balloon is filled correctly
  5. The catheter is gently removed and placement is complete

How is the Allurion Gastric Balloon removed?

Approximately 4 months after placement, a time-activated release valve will open, allowing the balloon to empty and pass naturally through the gastrointestinal tract without the need for a removal procedure

This may not be recommended for patients taking blood thinners and the ones suffering from sleep apnoea and cirrhosis

This procedure can be repeated up to 3 times at an interval of 3 months.

Cryolipolysis

Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive technology that uses extreme cold to dismantle fat cells and help reduce a fat pocket. A paneled or cupped device is placed on top of the skin in the treatment area, where it transmits temperatures that are just low enough to freeze fat cells, essentially destroying them. Because skin, muscle and nerve tissue freeze at a lower temperature than fat, these tissues remain unharmed FDA cleared for abdomen, hips, inner or outer thighs, back upper arms, under the buttock, and under the chin

Best for patients who wish to reduce the size of a fat bulge with little reshaping

Studies show that up to 25% fat reduction per treatment is typical

    • Treatments take 35 to 60 minutes to perform; any discomfort is typically mild and includes an intense cold feeling
    • Common side effects include temporary, mild swelling, numbness, redness and tingling. Seriousr lasting side effects are extremely rare
    • Typical patient is satisfied after 1 to 2 treatments
    • Results are noticeable within 1 month and final after 2-3 months

Ultrasound Fat Reduction

Ultrasound fat reduction uses highly focused sonic waves to break down fat cell walls in the treatment area, thereby releasing the fat inside to be metabolized by the body and reducing the size of a fat deposit. The ultrasound energy transmits through the skin, creating rapid pressure changes that cause the fat cells to break down while leaving surrounding tissues unharmed.

    • Treatments are intended for use on the abdomen and flanks
    • Ultrasound is noninvasive and no downtime is needed
    • Typical patient requires 1 to 3 treatments spaced 2 weeks apart, depending on treatment
    • Results appear gradually and are typically final within 6 to 12 weeks
    • Destroyed fat cells do not grow back, results can last with weight maintenance

Red Light Therapy:

One of the newest technologies to be FDA cleared for non-surgical fat reduction uses red light therapy to reduce the volume of subcutaneous fat cells. Instead of removing or destroying fat cells, “red light therapy,” delivers specific wavelengths of light through the skin using a specialized lamp. This light triggers selected fat cells to create small openings and release some of their contents, thus helping them shrink in size. FDA cleared treatments that use photonic lipolysis/red light therapy include Ultra Slim.

    • Red light therapy is intended to treat the abdomen, hips, or thighs; your cosmetic surgeon may use it for additional areas
    • Treatments take about 30 minutes to perform
    • Results begin to appear within a few hours after treatment and continue to improve as the body metabolizes the fat
    • Fat released by treatment is naturally eliminated as waste
    • Patients typically choose to have 3 or more treatments to achieve their goals
    • Results can last as long as a patient maintains a healthy lifestyle and stable weight
    • Red light therapy is a very low-risk treatment with no determined side effects; however, patients who are pregnant or have reduced liver function should not undergo treatment

With so many surgical & non–surgical weight loss options available today, it all depends on finding the right option suiting your physical conditions.

 

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